Photosynthesis is the process in which light energy is converted into chemical energy. Using the energy of light, carbohydrates such as sugars are synthesised from carbon dioxide and water.
The process of photosynthesis occurs when green plants use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into carbohydrates. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, a photosynthetic pigment of the plant, while air containing carbon dioxide and oxygen enters the plant through the leaf stomata. An extremely important by-product of photosynthesis is oxygen, on which most organisms depend.
Glucose, a carbohydrate processed during photosynthesis, is mostly used by plants as an energy source to build leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Molecules of glucose later combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. The cellulose is the structural material used in plant cell walls. Photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms.
We can express the overall reaction of photosynthesis as:
6CO2 + H2O =( Light Energy ) -> C6H1206+ 02
(six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen)
Photosynthesis takes place primarily in leaves and little to none occurs in stems. It takes place within specialised cell structures called chloroplasts.
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